Recently I’ve come across a couple of posts in support of ‘old school’ teaching styles. This one presents the ‘latest findings’ of recent studies that tend to support ‘tough’ teaching methods. This one, written by a prominent political scientist, laments the ‘demise’ of traditional education. It’s worth noting that these traditional voices are still relevant and in fact the arguments are becoming more prominent as educational technology upends the traditional teaching model in unexpected ways. It is completely understandable that educators might long for a more comfortable past, where authority was intrinsically respected (at least in our minds’s memory) and the power of the educator could be more easily leveraged to convey a universally recognized canon. One could also point to the ‘generation gap’ between ‘digital natives’ and others. However, I feel the heart of this debate is less technological than it is philosophical.
I’d like to use the next two posts to analyze this phenomenon. I’ll state from the outset that I remain an advocate of learner-centred teaching, which I understand to draw from constructivist and connectivist learning philosophies that contend: 1) that learners be held responsible for their learning process and goals; and 2) that teaching be attentive to the specific needs of learners.
I’ve noticed that considerable misunderstanding arises when learner-centred teaching is counterposed with ‘traditional’ teaching methods.
Do we need to choose between ‘the guide on the side’ instead of the ‘sage on the stage’?
Learner-centred teaching is not the ‘opposite of’ traditional teaching. Learner-centred teaching does not mean upending the relationship of respect between the learner and the teacher. Indeed, it is hard to imagine how instruction could be at all effective in the absence of mutual regard.
The defenses of those advocating ‘old school’ methods are therefore founded on a mistaken impression of what the ‘reformist’ alternative philosophies and methods are fundamentally about. It is, appropriately, the job of those who advocate changes to make their case. With the goal of opening a dialogue, let’s examine the arguments of the conservatives and some of the possible responses. What is precisely the argument for ‘old school’ instruction as we experience it today? I think it draws from several main premises, which I will extract from the two blogs posts described above. In this post I will address 2 of these, and in the next post I will talk about the last few.
‘Old School’ Arguments
- Standards matter. Grades represent a real measure of accomplishment and effort. High levels of accomplishment deserve reward, and lower levels send an important signal to the student about their degree of learning, which can either motivate more effort or help the student realize they are unsuited. Standards are best determined by the experts in a field, who are best-placed to judge what skills and knowledge are necessary to succeed. To fudge on or de-emphasize grades is to rob students of the opportunity to excel or fail, both are necessary in the process of learning, and both will help students to advance.
- A well-rounded education based on mastery should be the goal of learning. It is clear that a ‘well-rounded’ education for Barry Cooper (see his blog in the Calgary Herald) does not include things like anti-discrimination training or sustainability education, or explicit attention to soft goals like ‘well-being’. But what might a well-rounded education include?
Let’s take each of these premises in turn:
- With respect to standards, learner-centred teaching emphasizes that the expectations of teachers must be high. There is no real disagreement on that. The disconnect arises I think when the emphasis is solely on meeting the standards set by teachers and other authorities. The assumption is that students will always set their own standards too low, and require the teachers’ intervention to achieve.
Students will choose high standards for themselves very often if given the chance, and will benefit from a learning environment in which the material is advanced, sometimes very advanced.
When students do choose high standards, requiring a teachers’ intervention actually robs students of the ability to be more conscious, and yes, more self-disciplined and persistent. This is because these external standards give the message that teachers are their sole source of feedback. Lipman mentions an interesting example: music students who chose teachers that would be tough on them. The point is that the students chose those standards and were therefore more self-motivated to learn as a result. Here I would cite work done by Ken Bain and other educators and psychologists who emphasize that an intrinsic interest in learning can be compromised when the focus is on extrinsic rewards and punishments. The result of ‘learning for the grade’ is that learners will do just enough to earn the grade and no more. If part of the goal of education is to learn self-reliance, why compromise that goal by removing any chance to be accountable to oneself.
2. With respect to ‘mastery’, there is again not really a disagreement here about the goal. For Cooper, though, mastery means a specific thing: the ability to be conversant in a specific culture. While one may argue about the content of that culture, I think we can agree that certain habits of mind underlie all forms of learning: the ability to be open-minded, critically-minded, curious, thorough, persistent, detailed, even-handed, thoughtful and reflective, a problem-solver, expressive, and/or skeptical. How we acquire these habits is still a question in hot debate in educational circles. It is far from resolved, but there is no reason yet to believe that mastery is any less likely to occur in a constructivist than in a traditional setting. There is also really no reason to believe that tolerance, commitment to community, or even self-development are incompatible with mastery learning. If we uncover the conservatives’ focus on a ‘well-rounded’ education, I think we will see something that very closely resembles ‘character-building’ or ‘service to the community’ as well as the acquisition of skills. These values underlie a lot of the ‘old school’ philosophy and are implicit values of education.
In my next post, I’ll look ahead to other components of the ‘old school’ argument: discipline, stress, and failure. Just what we look for in a well-educated individual.